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Because the highest impact changes we can make happen at a systemic level, we'll require systemic change that can only happen if governments create the environment for them. Legislation is the single most important part of the climate change solution. Legislators work for those keeping them in power, whether that is their constituencies or special interests. It is then imperative that people and organisations insist that their representatives enact these measures.

Supply and Demand

Bill Gates puts these new laws into two categories, based on basic economic principles of supply: that is, creating the environment for innovations to happen; and demand: creating incentives to make people want these solutions.

Expand the Supply of Innovation.

Here, we're talking about classic research and development, where great scientists drum up the technologies we need.

Accelerate the Demand for Innovation

There are two phases to demand, the proof phase and the scale up phase.

- The proof phase

This is where the approaches have to be proven in a market. The proof phase is a valley of death: a place where good ideas go to die. Governments can help companies to make it through the proof phase.

- The scale up phase.

This is how government can help with rapid, large-scale deployment, by helping make these as or more cost effective as their high-emission counterparts.

Levels of Government

These are big, expensive changes, and a coordinated effort among all levels of government is required. Here are the efforts that must be made at each level.

Gates, Bill. How to Avoid a Climate Disaster (p. 203-216). Penguin Books Ltd. Kindle Edition.